Essays for Summa Theologica. Hope also regards the person from whom a man hopes to be able to obtain some good. FIRST PART (QQ. Reply to Objection 3. A certain nature may be ascribed to a certain thing in two ways. Ap. Much less therefore should they be reckoned as theological virtues. movement to the end, and conformity with the end by means of love. Further, the Philosopher says (Phys. Objection 2. OF THE PERSON OF THE SON QUESTION 35. But the reason and will, according to their nature, are not sufficiently directed to Him in so far as He is the object of supernatural happiness. Reply to Objection 3. Likewise hope is not reckoned among the moral virtues, but is something less than a virtue, since it is a passion. With regard to this, hope precedes love at first; though afterwards hope is increased by love. vi) that science and virtue are habits. It would seem that the order of the theological virtues is not that faith precedes hope, and hope charity. Reply to Objection 2. Now love is charity, which is a theological virtue. Therefore virtue itself is an ordered disposition of the soul, in so far as, to wit, the powers of the soul are in some way ordered to one another, and to that which is outside. Article 4. On the Simplicity of God 4. Reply to Objection 3. Hence in the order of generation, faith precedes hope and charity. Article 2. Virtue which is referred to being is not proper to man; but only that virtue which is referred to works of reason, which are proper to man. For the act of virtue is nothing else than the good use of free-will. But these two fall short of the order of supernatural happiness, according to 1 Corinthians 2:9: "The eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that love Him." Therefore human virtues are habits. Now intellectual and moral virtues can be caused in us by our acts, as stated above (A). Therefore there should be only two theological virtues, one perfecting the intellect, the other, the will. Now as natural virtue is in natural things, so is human virtue in rational beings. movement to the end, and conformity with the end by means of love. Question: 55. Reply to Objection 3. It is therefore unsuitable to say that "God works virtue in us, without us.". iv) that as health and beauty belong to the body, so virtue belongs to the soul. Every virtue, therefore, is not a good quality "of the mind." Now the virtues which perfect the intellective part are called intellectual; and the virtues which perfect the appetitive … It is untrue, therefore, "that no one can make bad use of virtue." We must, however, observe that, as accidents and non-subsistent forms are called beings, not as if they themselves had being, but because things are by them; so also are they called good or one, not by some distinct goodness or oneness, but because by them something is good or one. Course 2: Introduction to Thomistic Philosophy Course 3: God and His Creation Course 4: Principles of the Moral Life Course 5: Theological and Cardinal Virtues Course 6: Christ and the Sacraments Course 7: Virtue - New! 116). On the other hand, the object of the intellectual and moral virtues is something comprehensible to human reason. Therefore virtue also is referred to good and evil. Therefore charity, which is love, precedes hope. Therefore prudence is not a … Read in English by M.S.C. Reply to Objection 1. 11: "He who created thee without thee, will not justify thee without thee." Objection 3. Reply to Objection 3. The reason and will are naturally directed to God, inasmuch as He is the beginning and end of nature, but in proportion to nature. But that which is Divine is above man's nature. And so for material cause we have the subject, which is mentioned when we say that virtue is a good quality "of the mind. i, 13). But power in reference to being is on the part of matter, which is potential being, whereas power in reference to act, is on the part of the form, which is the principle of action, since everything acts in so far as it is in act. When therefore we say that "virtue is the limit of power," virtue is taken for the object of virtue. The evil of drunkenness and excessive drink, consists in a falling away from the order of reason. But these two fall short of the order of supernatural happiness, according to 1 Corinthians 2:9: "The eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that love Him." Secondly, the will is directed to this end, both as to that end as something attainable—and this pertains to hope—and as to a certain spiritual union, whereby the will is, so to speak, transformed into that end—and this belongs to charity. vi): "No one can doubt that virtue makes the soul exceeding good": and the Philosopher says (Ethic. 1-119) Question 1. Nom. Hence faith and hope, in things that are subject to human power, fall short of the notion of virtue. Hope also regards the person from whom a man hopes to be able to obtain some good. The second part is divided two, and this recording presents Prima Secundae-Part I of Part II.Taken in its entirety, Summa Theologica forms an essential contribution to the canon of Catholic doctrine and was written in the last decade of his life by Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), an Italian-born Dominican friar. Sometimes we give the name of a virtue to that to which the virtue is directed, namely, either to its object, or to its act: for instance, we give the name Faith, to that which we believe, or to the act of believing, as also to the habit by which we believe. The Summa Theologica is divided into three parts, and each of these three parts has a number of subsets. In like manner a man loves a thing because he apprehends it as his good. In this way therefore virtue is applied to evil things: so that the "virtue" of sin is said to be law, in so far as occasionally sin is aggravated through the law, so as to attain to the limit of its possibility. ", The end of virtue, since it is an operative habit, is operation. We must, however, observe that, as accidents and non-subsistent forms are called beings, not as if they themselves had being, but because things are by them; so also are they called good or one, not by some distinct goodness or oneness, but because by them something is good or one. Westmonasterii.APPROBATIO ORDINISNihil Obstat. LibriVox recording of Summa Theologica - 10 Pars Secunda Secundae, Treatise on the Theological Virtues: Faith, Hope, Charity by Saint Thomas Aquinas. Retrouvez Summa Theologiae: Virtue et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. It would seem that the order of the theological virtues is not that faith precedes hope, and hope charity. For the formal cause of virtue, as of everything, is gathered from its genus and difference, when it is defined as "a good quality": for "quality" is the genus of virtue, and the difference, "good." lxxxiii, qu. But the end of power is act. 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