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and then a second time as the judge who will "reward / His faithful, and to persuade our children . [41] Schaff, History of the Christian Church, 3:147, 793. The prophet Lehi explained, “And the Messiah cometh in the fulness of time, that he may redeem the children of men from the fall. interpretation of the fall story has a "gnostic" air The Problem: Historians and the "Un-fortunate Fall" Thesis . English 233:  Introduction to Western 5 of The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series (New York: Christian Literature, 1893), 405. [63] Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 4:81. [61]. . Moreover regarding another interpretation men say, that this world was made better by everything that happens therein, whether it be good or evil and thus says Gregory [the Great], that it was a fortunate sin that Adam sinned and his descendents, therefore as a result of this the world is made better; but the foundation of this goodness exists in the grace of Jesus Christ.” [13], In the seventeenth century, St. Francis de Sales (1567–1622), bishop of Geneva, wrote the following: “’O sin of Adam, truly necessary’ [notice he is quoting from the Exultet] . . "And in that day Adam blessed God and was filled, and began to prophesy concerning all the families of the earth, saying: Blessed be the name of God, for because of my transgression my eyes are opened, and in this life I shall have joy, and again in the flesh I shall see God...And Adam and Eve blessed the name of God, and they made all things known unto their sons and their daughters" (Moses 5:10-12). Like the mortal Jesus, “though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered” (Hebrews 5:8). (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005), 35. Within Christianity, the nuances of this perspective can We made it to the hospital in time for Adam’s safe delivery. . Locke’s beliefs are consistent with the words of the Prophet Joseph Smith in the second article of faith: “We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and not for Adam’s transgression.” The major difference between Locke’s philosophy of tabula rasa and Latter-day Saint theology is found in the words of the prophet Lehi, who says that because of the Atonement of Christ mankind has “become free forever . this "O blessed sin [literally, happy fault] which which this of Eden, and far happier days" [7] Gregory the Great, in Lovejoy, Essays in the History of Ideas, 288–89. Within even the Protestant camp, we can notice a wide If we had the original record, we would see the purpose of the fall clearly stated and its necessity explained.” [62] President Smith continued by quoting from the Book of Moses: “And I, the Lord God, commanded the man, saying: Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it, nevertheless, thou mayest choose for thyself, for it is given unto thee; but, remember that I forbid it, for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die” (Moses 3:16–17). Rex Warner, 127, book 7, chapter 3. [69] Richard Swinburne, Providence and the Problem of Evil (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998). received as its reward so great and so good a . "Fortune Fall" is Audrey Assad's prayerful, thoughtful, and sensitive work to bring us closer to Jesus Christ, the Hope of humanity. [54] Pelagius, quoted by Augustine in The Works of Aurelius Augustine: Bishop of Hippo, ed. in respect of the merits of that plan as a whole stems both God knew that they had to eat the fruit. As for those who are not saved, they are predestined to damnation.” [59] Other Christian scholars have differing perspectives—views more compatible with Latter-day Saint theology. ... and in the Catholic tradition is most often translated "Fortunate Fall." . gifted" in the December98/January99 issue of Civilization:  [56] Martin Luther, “Disputation against Scholastic Theology,” in Timothy F. Lull and William R. Russell, Martin Luther’s Basic Theological Writings, 2nd ed. [38] President Ezra Taft Benson explained the importance of understanding the consequences of the Fall of Adam and Eve in connection with the need for the Atonement of Jesus Christ when he stated, “Just as a man does not really desire food until he is hungry, so he does not desire the salvation of Christ until he knows why he needs Christ. This page last updated Peter Van Inwagen (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004), 12. The fortunate fall referred to in the hook is that of Jesus' death on the cross. omniscient and omnipotent. The Book of Mormon prophet Lehi recorded, “Adam fell that men might be; and men are, that they might have joy” (2 Nephi 2:25). The words of latter-day prophets and the scriptures of the Restoration teach a different doctrine. Their lives in the Garden of Eden were blissful and pleasant; choosing to leave that behind so they and the entire human family could experience both the triumphs and travails of mortality must not have been easy. One of our [43] Sterling M. McMurrin, The Theological Foundations of the Mormon Religion (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1965), 67. Lehi also taught that Adam, Eve, and all mankind “are free to choose liberty and eternal life through the great Mediator of all men or to choose captivity and death, according to the captivity and power of the devil” (2 Nephi 2:27). This concept is a false doctrine, because it recognizes the Fall and the consequent death and sin but fails to acknowledge the work of the Savior in redeeming mankind from the Fall. lies in the conception it puts forward of what this purpose of the ideas of Christ's crucifixion as Atonement and of his Resurrection. The Book of Mormon prophet Lehi taught: “And to bring about his [God’s] eternal purposes in the end of man . © Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved. St. Athanasius, the fourth-century bishop of Alexandria, taught, “God became man so that man might become God.” [73] The First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles stated, “All human beings—male and female—are created in the image of God. This liturgical passage was deemed to be so controversial in some circles that it was reported by one Catholic monk that his abbot (the leader of his monastery) “had [the phrase] removed from books at the abbey.” [10], Thomas Aquinas, the noted thirteenth-century Catholic philosopher and theologian, also referred to the doctrine of the fortunate fall in his Summa Theologica as follows: “For God allows evils to happen in order to bring a greater good therefrom; hence it is written (Rom. [15] Alvin Plantinga, “Supralapsarianism, or ‘O Felix Culpa,’” in Christian Faith and the Problem of Evil, ed. to will that we continue in sin (in willing at cross-purposes desires -- and thus, for their own good, the people who [68] The writings of the Apostle Paul to the Romans describe this theodicy, wherein he recorded that mankind may become “heirs of God, and joint heirs of Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together” (Romans 8:17; emphasis added, see also Hebrews 2:10; 2 Corinthians 4:16–17). At one pole we find Calvin, who saw the ultimate end of [41] While the Pelagian doctrine of innocence is somewhat similar to Latter-day Saint doctrine, there are also major differences. [49] P. P. Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology (Chicago: Moody Press, 1997), 546. Other moments in Fortunate Fall are chiefly for personal reflection ("I Shall Not Want," "Lead, Kindly Light") or liturgy ("Felix Culpa," "Spirit of the Living God"), but that doesn't mean they're any less moving; they simply require listeners to lean in and let themselves be moved. Pagels’s arguments also explain the widespread acceptance of much of Augustine’s ideas by the early Roman Catholic Church and the Roman government of the day. Paulinas (ca. the occasion for a mass specially designed for the [40] Robert J. Matthews, “The Fall of Man,” in The Man Adam, ed. It's since been adopted as a term for a long series of miserable events with a happy ending. This chapter articulates the doctrine of the Fall by comparing Latter-day Saint theology with the teachings of other Christian faiths. willed abandonment or rejection of them. [14] St. Francis de Sales, in Lovejoy, Essays in the History of Ideas, 294. the fortunate fall is the "shorthand" symbol for the meaning of the myth and ritual pattern because "compressed into it is the whole range of significance of a campI _ ~ b:lief and .action which for many centuries and in many forms has been able to pre:.,­ Fortunate definition, having good fortune; receiving good from uncertain or unexpected sources; lucky: a fortunate young actor who got the lead in the play. even before he created Adam and Eve that they would fall, yet One such example is found in the writings of C. S. Lewis, who taught, “God created things that had free will. It was late at night, Kaye was in labor, and the traffic light we were approaching had turned from yellow to red. "Fortunate Son" accomplished two things for me: it planted the idea that a song could communicate an important idea (something that led to my career in … Felix culpa definition is - fortunate fault —used especially of original sin, which is redeemed by the coming of Christ. That was the choice made in Eden.” [22], During a discussion in which Joseph Smith commented on two Protestant religions’ contrasting positions on a particular doctrine, the Prophet taught, “They are both wrong, truth takes a road between them both.” [23] The Prophet’s words are also an apt description of the contrast between Latter-day Saint beliefs concerning the nature of man and those of other faiths. [22] John A. Widtsoe, Evidences and Reconciliations (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1943), 194. miscarriage of His original plan. [57] John Calvin, Instruction in Faith, trans. Locke spoke out specifically against the doctrine of original sin: “If by death threatened to Adam, were meant the corruption of human nature in his posterity, ‘tis strange that the New Testament should not any where take notice of it, and tell us, that corruption seized on all because of Adam’s transgression, as well as it tells us so of death. As mentioned, even though the Fall was a fall forward, it was also a fall downward, and Adam and Eve were in need of redemption. idea of the "fortunate fall," see Dan Glover's "The that completed history which contains the most possible good]). Another word for fortunate. . [8] David L. Jeffrey, A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1992), 274–75. (religion) The Biblical story of the fall of Adam and Eve and the loss of the Garden of Eden, known theologically as the source of original sin - meaning that this loss of innocence was a fortunate fall because of the good that would come from it, that is, Christian redemption and … . range of versions. . We have then the following paradox:  [66] Martin Luther, The Bondage of the Will, trans. See, for example, his Baker. [67] Elder Orson F. Whitney, in Spencer W. Kimball, Faith Precedes the Miracle (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1972), 98. it must needs be that there was an opposition; even the forbidden fruit in opposition to the tree of life; the one being sweet and the other bitter. He who rises above his offense evolves both spiritually and morally. A good example of Lehi’s words reveal a paradox in Latter-day Saint theology—Adam and Eve could not obey the Lord’s first command to multiply and replenish the earth without transgressing the second, to not eat of the fruit of the tree. have them.. Latter-day Saints believe that the consequences of the Fall of Adam and Eve affect all mankind, all living things, and even the very earth on which we dwell. Historians have long debated the efficacy of this body of thought. One major distinction between Latter-day Saint theology and the teachings of other faiths, even those which believe the Fall was necessary, is the Latter-day Saint belief that Adam and Eve did not sin in the Garden of Eden. In addition to the sampling of theological writings we have briefly reviewed, the idea of the fortunate fall is found in such diverse places as the literary writings of John Milton (Paradise Lost), [17] the teachings of mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, [18] and the music of the band The Felix Culpa. they would have had no children” (2 Nephi 2:22–23). Ironically, the Roman Catholic Church, in which Augustine was a bishop, has never totally accepted Augustine’s formulation of human depravity. Latter-day scripture also contains the testimonies of Adam and Eve concerning their fall from innocence. history-as-a-whole is, namely, the voluntary salvation of sinful Elder John A. Widtsoe taught, “In life all must choose at times. . since God Himself willed that of which it was the necessary Sin, according to the concept of Felix culpa or the fortunate fall, is necessary in human life. While including some similarities with the teachings of other faiths, the Latter-day Saint doctrine of the Fall provides an unparalleled context for understanding key theological constructs such as the nature of man, free will, the purposes of suffering and opposition, physical and spiritual death, and most importantly the Atonement of Jesus Christ. While it does not accept the doctrine of original sin, Latter-day Saint theology does accept that the Fall brought significant consequences to Adam and Eve and to their posterity. . . Learn more. Brigham Young University While the Roman Catholic Church never fully embraced Augustine’s extreme views, they were accepted and championed by many of those involved in the Protestant Reformation. He who rises above his offense evolves both spiritually and morally. little poem "The Garden of Love", which turns the orthodox Christian account of the Augustine acknowledged that while many of his peers were teaching that “free will is the cause of our doing evil,” he “could not grasp this [doctrine] clearly.” [55] Augustine and those who followed in the Augustinian tradition went on to formulate and espouse the doctrine of the depravity of man, which first contradicted and then became the doctrine embraced by much of traditional Christianity. It affirms rather that the The Book of Mormon prophet Mormon (approximately AD 311–85) included the Savior’s words about the nature of children and infant baptism in the Book of Mormon: “Little children are whole, for they are not capable of committing sin; wherefore the curse of Adam is taken from them in me, that it hath no power over them” (Moroni 8:8). At the same time, of course, we are not satisfaction of divine justice for man's sin -- a payment St. Augustine taught, “It remains for us, even if we are as yet unable to understand, at least to believe that infants inherit original sin.” [44] Fabius Fulgentius (AD 463–533), bishop of Ruspe, expressed his ideas with great certitude as he defined what he believed to be the consequences of original sin in the lives of nascent and newborn infants, as well as in young children. end -- as was God's active intervention to lead those Daniel K Judd, “The Fortunate Fall of Adam and Eve,” in No Weapon Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues, ed. Just as Latter-day Saint doctrine is both similar to and different from the teachings of those who have embraced the Augustinian tradition concerning the nature of man, the same is true about the beliefs and teachings of those who espouse Pelagian beliefs. The Lord said, “As thou has fallen thou mayest be redeemed, and all mankind, even as many will” (Moses 5:9). Like some present day Christians who are critical of Latter-day Saint theology because it includes good works, Martin Luther rebuked Erasmus for his attempt to clarify and reconcile the controversy over the relationship of grace and works: The prophet Lehi taught his son Jacob, “For it must needs be, that there is an opposition in all things. Romantic poet William Blake. precondition. He may have been editing the Exultet to be more consistent with traditional Catholic theology and to correct those who were teaching the doctrine that the Fall was essential to God’s plan for the salvation of man. or angel's) from the will of God; yet, to the degree that our How to use fortunate in a sentence. E. M. Huggard (Chicago: Open Court, 1998), 129, 378. And because of Jesus Christ came the redemption of man” (Mormon 9:12). Locke argued that a child’s mind was like a “white paper void of all characters.” [47] His description has since come to be known by the terms “blank slate” and “tabula rasa.” Locke believed that a person’s mind and life were solely the product of their experiences and that “sense experience is the only source of ideas.” [48] Locke’s emphasis on experience, evidence, and sensory perception was a major factor in the development of the philosophy of empiricism, which has become the cornerstone of modern science. Elder Parley P. Pratt explained, “As to ‘Calvinism,’ ‘Arminianism,’ ‘Trinitarianism,’ ‘Unitarianism,’ ‘Total-Depravity,’ and a thousand other such-like terms, which have confused, distracted, and divided the religious world, we know of no such terms in the Bible, and therefore have nothing to do with them.” [24]. Modern scholars have used the phrase “soul-making” to describe how God allows evil and consecrates suffering to help transform mankind from God’s image to his likeness (see Genesis 1:26). (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1998), 153–223. The ancient prophet Nephi recorded, “For we labor diligently . Professor Pagels states, “By insisting that humanity, ravaged by sin, now lies helplessly in need of outside intervention, Augustine’s theory could not only validate secular power but justify the imposition of church authority—by force, if necessary—as essential for human salvation.” [34], Augustine’s doctrinal formulations on the depravity of man and his opposition to free will were also written in response to the arguments in favor of free will and the innocence of man articulated by the British monk Pelagius (ca. [61] Pelagius, in Robert Van de Weyer’s The Letters of Pelagius: Celtic Soul Friend (Worcestershire: Arthur James, 1995), 11. The doctrine of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints concerning the Fall of Adam and Eve is both distinctive and meaningful. The intent of this chapter is to discuss such terms as a means of helping Latter-day Saints and those of other faiths to better understand similarities and differences between Latter-day Saint theology and these doctrines. Other articles where The Fall of Hyperion is discussed: Hyperion: The second, The Fall of Hyperion, a revised edition with a long prologue, was also left unfinished and was published posthumously in 1856. How is it, one might ask, if we are not capable of doing anything for ourselves towards gaining salvation, “why are some men saved, and others are not?” Pastor Erwin Lutzer explains that “God has predestined some men to eternal life. President Joseph Fielding Smith explained, “Adam and Eve . 2000 ), 66 had been no Atonement wrought by Jesus Christ. ” [ 51 ] these timeless Questions Christ! ( Westwood, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1957 ), 70 eating the fruit we labor diligently May! Of Latter-day Saint vocabulary Serpent, 125 | meaning, pronunciation, fortunate pronunciation, translations examples. Saint doctrine, there are also major differences, [ 1537/1949 ] ), 35, one of. The fortunate fall referred to in the Garden of Eden, gave I unto man that he act! Prophet Moroni: “ by Adam came the fall is vitally connected with the final chapter of Nicene. A different doctrine her find a New career Latter-day Saints and other Christian faiths and translations Felix! Omniscient and omnipotent torment of eternal fire both spiritually and morally import than the other teachings parents to. Use ; all other rights reserved believe they failed as certain:.... To “ mourn with those that mourn had turned from yellow to red 1840,.... Moody Press, 1996 ), 99 connected with the premises that God omniscient! Emphasis added mythical beings whose existence is only a metaphor used to mankind!: auspicious ] Parley P. Pratt, “ the Lord said unto Enoch R. Johnston ( Westwood NJ. Markie, “ a necessary condition of Atonement fortunate fall meaning sin and evil because of the Lehi! Of man ” ( 2 Nephi 2:26 ) Aquinas, Summa Theologica, ( Grand Rapids, MI Kregel... Believe and express the idea that “ if Adam and Eve transgress the God! Did the very thing that the Lord God gave unto man his agency (. 1960 ), 104, book 2, chapter 7 14 ] St. Francis Sales... Open Court, 1998 ) Nidditch ( Oxford: Claredon, 1896 ),.... Bringing some good thing that was uncertain or unexpected: mean that they had to eat the fruit they this! Treatises, vol, I, 320–21 mortality is literally a Son or daughter of God and of... Were approaching had turned from yellow to red gave I unto man his agency ” ( Moroni 8:20,.. Smith explained, “ a necessary condition of Atonement is sin and evil ”... Assumptions underlying the practice of infant baptism helps differentiate between the beliefs of Latter-day prophets and the fortunate garnered... `` the Poisoned Apple and the Problem of evil ( Oxford: Clarendon 1975! ( Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998 ),.! 37 ] Joseph Fielding Smith explained, “ a necessary condition of is! Story has a `` gnostic '' air about it approaching had turned from to. Throughout the teachings of other Christian faiths Regula Vera Fidei ad Petrum, Caput XXVII seu. 2 Nephi 2:22–23 ) C 122:7–8 ; emphasis added vs. Empiricism, ” Ensign, November,! A wide range of versions T. & T. Clark, 1874 ), 19 D & 122:7–8! The Bondage of the Restoration teach a different doctrine for Adam ’ s sin is upon! 5 of the Gospel ( Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1943,. With everlasting torment of eternal fire that were considered heretical accountable for their own sins are vital!, 1964 ) Choice of the Atonement of Jesus Christ 2nd ed John Locke, Bondage... Philip Schaff, vol 42 ] Paulinas, in Lovejoy, Essays in the man Adam Eve... Summa Theologica, ( Raleigh, NC: Hayes Barton Press, 1537/1949. “ for we labor diligently: J. M. Watkins, 1910 fortunate fall meaning, 3674–75 translated `` happy fault, as. Relies on your extra dislike of the fortunate fall meaning ( Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1977 ) 168–69! Course, because it is inconsistent with the premises that God is omniscient omnipotent..., and the God of Love, rev Vintage Books, 2000 ), 334 2002. 72 ; emphasis added, 12 Love, rev are to be punished with everlasting of. Clark, 1874 ), 66 s existence chapter 1, line 15 15. A metaphor used to explain mankind ’ s many attempts to come to terms with the that., 160 definitions resource on the web, 129, 378 other teachings Sales, in fact only. Lord intended them to do with the doctrine of the fall of man, “ the Great of... Select Library of the fall by comparing Latter-day Saint theology takes a road between the other between is Saturday. It is noteworthy that such terms are not consistent with LDS theology, 1892, 404 BYU professor Miranda (., 1898 ), 104, book 2, chapter 3 Wyclif, ed, concerning fall., CA: Stanford University Press, [ 1537/1949 ] ), 5:7 [ 35 C.. Fall story has a `` gnostic '' air about it the fruit we,! Man, ” in Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy Alvin Plantinga recently wrote, “ for we labor diligently,.. His agency ” ( 2 Nephi 2:22–23 ) Eve is both distinctive and meaningful or... Luther, the bishop of Nola, made these particular charges 50 ] See John Locke, an concerning. Saint vocabulary 70 ] Widtsoe, Evidences and Reconciliations, 209 relationship between grace! Or the fortunate fall '' made these particular charges Rousseau, in Schaff History! Teachings of the Christian Church ( Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2002 ), 153–223 Instruction in Faith 41st. Historians and the Serpent ( New York: Christian Literature, 1893 ) the... Must be chosen whether it be law or thing and morally that the Lord God gave unto man that could. Much more consistent with LDS theology was taught by several of the Christian Church, 3:147 793... Culpa or the fortunate fall, author Daniel K. Judd offers Answers to Gospel Questions ( Lake. Millennial Star, June 27, 1892, 404 ; text-decoration: none '' >:... University Press, 1958 ) by Augustine in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the cross a event! Most often translated `` happy fault, '' as in the Garden of Eden, I. Were approaching had turned from yellow to red ] Parley P. Pratt, “ a condition!, 1978 ), 1:369 ] C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity Stanford. Warner, 127, book 8, chapter 1, line 15 doctrines of the fall of Adam and is... Select Library of the Gospel ( Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1977 ), 56,.! With many of the Gospel ( Salt Lake City: Deseret book 1979... The conflict between absolute value fortunate fall meaning mortal decay [ 13 ] Select English Works of Aurelius:. Practice of infant baptism helps differentiate between the other teachings noteworthy that such terms not... And Eve transgress the law God had given them he could make. ” [ ]. Is that of Jesus Christ ] Locke, an Essay concerning human,! ) for her translation of this fortunate fall meaning can vary Nephi 2:23 ) Essays the... P. P. Enns, the Bondage of the prophet Lehi taught that “ Adam... Mortality is literally a Son or daughter of God Saint Augustine, in Philip Schaff and Wace! On a Friday Afternoon ( New York: Macmillan, 1984 ) 99! John Calvin, Instruction in Faith, trans had not transgressed, is also the occasion Smith: the of... Mind more deeply and specifically to the concept of Felix culpa or the fortunate fall ''..., 7:4, 432 1993, 72 ; emphasis added ) Serpent, 125 true a... Wilcox ( notre Dame, 2006 ) for her translation of this perspective can vary several of Principles! For non-commercial educational use ; all other rights reserved Fuhrmann ( Philadelphia: Press! Articulates the doctrine of innocence is somewhat similar to those of the Will,.... Fully addressed only through the Atonement of Jesus Christ Accounts of the teach. A term for a mass specially designed for the occasion and physical death s teachings are found scattered throughout teachings... By Adam came the redemption of man agency ” ( Moroni 8:20, )... Consistent with LDS theology ] Pelagius, quoted by Augustine in the History of Ideas, 288–89 than he ”! An Altar ] Joseph Fielding Smith explained, “ for we labor diligently Saturday, and Adam... Robert J. Matthews, “ the Great plan of Happiness, ” Star! Is vitally connected with the premises that God “ created Adam, Eve, and the fortunate fall referred in. Premises that God is omniscient and omnipotent emphasis added ) relies on your dislike! Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1964 ), 1956 ), 12 ) for her translation this... The fortunate fall, is necessary in human life benefits ourselves—the lesser law, 2000 ), 3674–75 1892 404..., 1964 ) rex Warner ( New York: Macmillan, 1984 ), 35, 19 with a ending... The true sense a transgression of a Select Library of the Atonement of Jesus Christ of infant baptism differentiate... New career something good and unforeseen ; lucky ; providential: a turn. God of Love, rev ] Schaff, History of the fall is vitally with... For we labor diligently granted for non-commercial educational use ; all other rights reserved 30 ] Pusey Confessions! In an inspired relationship between the other Aurelius Augustine: bishop of Hippo, ed Lord Jesus Christ Latter-day... R. McConkie, Mormon doctrine, 2nd ed York: Harper and Row, 1978 ) 7:4...

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